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Henle I exercise 265 (4FL lesson 10)

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    Henle I exercise 265 (4FL lesson 10)

    I have a question about translation in Fourth Form lesson 10, Henle exercise 265. The verbs in the first 3 sentences are translated with bant/bat endings, which looks like imperfect to me, but I was expecting to use the perfect. I am sure I am missing something...can you help?
    2021-2022: 13th year homeschooling. 8th MP year.

    A, 12th grade: online classes with MPOA and TPS
    E, 10th grade: 10th grade core; math with MPOA, biology at co-op
    B, 7th grade: 7th grade core; math and comp with MPOA

    Hi Melanie,

    In sentences 1 and 3 the words "always" and "often" indicate an incomplete or ongoing action, which more properly would be expressed by the imperfect tense in Latin. Sentence 2 is a predicate adjective construction and could be expressed in either the imperfect or perfect I suppose but the Romans seem to use the imperfect more regularly in predicate adjective situations.

    The imperfect/perfect translations to and from English are not always as clear cut as we would like them to be!

    Paul Schaeffer
    Academy Director
    Memoria Press Online Academy


      Paul answered your question; I would just add a small suggestion to use this exercise to review the contrast in the tenses. Review #1-3, which express ongoing or repeated actions in the imperfect; then read #4 which shows the proper use of both tenses: completed main clause action rendered by the perfect (Caesar duxit, led) in contrast to the ongoing state of the rivers expressed by the imperfect in the relative clause (which were long and deep.) You can also see the contrast in the tenses in #8: the ongoing nature of the imperfect state in the relative clause (the centurions were brave) versus the perfect tense main verb showing completed action (The legion ... conquered the enemy). You may also want to review Henle Grammar 486-487.

      Paul makes an excellent point. Sometimes it is difficult to say whether the imperfect or perfect should be used. If your student did well with translating the relatives in this exercise, that is a job well done.