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Third Form Latin, Unit 1 Review Q

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    Third Form Latin, Unit 1 Review Q

    Can someone explain p. 49 Translation C questions 7 and 8. On Q 7 enemy is translated as plural and question 8 army is translated singular.
    -Amy

    Nine babies, 6 graduated, 5 married, 17 grand babies 7 and under!
    2020/21 MP 3rd, 6th, 11th MPOA, College student. Starting 8th year using Memoria Press
    Director of Coop 412, a Classical Christian Coop using MP and based on Ephesians 4:12.

    #2
    Good question!

    This arises from a difference in the way English and Latin handle the idea of enemy. In English, we can use enemy to refer to an individual or a whole host. Grammatically, enemy remains singular, but we determine whether that singular word refers to a person or a group of people from the context. In this sentence, for example, it is unlikely that one man is holding the city captive, so we can safely assume it's an enemy host.

    In Latin however, we cannot use hostis in this way. An enemy individual must be a singular enemy; an enemy host must be plural enemies. So, even though the English sentence says the city was held by the enemy, we translate by the enemy as a plural hostibus because, as mentioned before, we can safely assume the enemy in question is in fact a plural number of enemies.

    Exercitus, on the other hand, is simply a singular noun that refers to a group, just like the English word army. So, a singular by the army is a singular exercitu.

    - Jon

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      #3
      Thank you. So the way you divide that is there can be a singular one person enemy but not a singular one person army?
      -Amy

      Nine babies, 6 graduated, 5 married, 17 grand babies 7 and under!
      2020/21 MP 3rd, 6th, 11th MPOA, College student. Starting 8th year using Memoria Press
      Director of Coop 412, a Classical Christian Coop using MP and based on Ephesians 4:12.

      Comment


        #4
        That's a way to look at it. I'd phrase it differently; is the noun a collective singular? In other words, can a single unit of this noun describe multiple other things. Army is a collective singular in both English and Latin; enemy can only be collective in English. So, we can translate army and exercitus in the same number as each other; but since enemy can be collective and hostis cannot, we must translate a singular enemy as a plural hostes whenever enemy is used collectively.

        - Jon

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          #5
          Maggie
          Amy,
          Magistra Strickland helped me remember these by giving these examples:
          Cicero called Cataline an enemy: hostis (one man).
          Caesar defeated his enemies the Gauls: hostes (a group of men).
          That help? I think I've got it right. Jon?
          Festina lentē,
          Jessica P

          2021-2022 • 12th year HSing • 10th year MP
          12th • AP Latin online, DE Calculus & Physics, HLN
          10th • HLN, Latin online, MPOA
          7th • HLN & Home
          4th • HLN & Home
          Me • Third Form for Adults, MPOA; teaching TFL and co-directing @

          Highlands Latin Nashville Cottage School, est. 2016

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            #6
            Yes that makes sense, I just get lost in the army as a unit and the enemy as a unit but it’s nearly clear .
            -Amy

            Nine babies, 6 graduated, 5 married, 17 grand babies 7 and under!
            2020/21 MP 3rd, 6th, 11th MPOA, College student. Starting 8th year using Memoria Press
            Director of Coop 412, a Classical Christian Coop using MP and based on Ephesians 4:12.

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